Assessment of Changes in Teacher Candidates’ Perceptions of the Concept of the Environment
Abstract views: 124 / PDF downloads: 154
Keywords:Mental Structure, drawings, environment, metaphor, perceptions
Higher education institutions are responsible for producing individuals with the knowledge, skills, and values to contribute to the improvement of society’s quality of life. Environmental education is also one of the leading permanent solutions for environmental problems. The aim of this research is to understand teacher candidates’ perceptions of the concept of “environment.” In this context, a case study, as one of the qualitative research methods, was used. The participants consisted of 36 students enrolled in the primary school teaching department at a state university. The data collection tools included a word association test, metaphor, and drawing techniques. These data collection tools were applied before and after an environmental education course that participants attended for 14 weeks. From the research findings, it is understood that the participants’ mental structures for the concept of “environment” shifted from being living creature-oriented to being pollution-oriented by the end of the environmental education course.
Ahi, B. & Özsoy, S. (2015). Elementary school teachers’ attitudes towards environment: gender and professional seniority factors. Kastamonu Education Journal, 23(1), 31-56.
Ahi, B., & Alisinanoğlu, F. (2016). Effect of environmental education program integrated with preschool curriculum on children’s mental model development about “environment” concept. Kafkas University Journal of the Institute of Social Sciences, 18(2), 305-329.
Altunışık, R., Çoşkun, R., Yıldırım, E. & Bayraktaroğlu, S. (2010). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri [Research Methods in Social Sciences]. Sakarya Publishing.
Ardoin, N. M., Bowers, A. W., & Gaillard, E. (2020). Environmental education outcomes for conservation: A systematic review. Biological Conservation, 241, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.108224
Atasoy, B. (2004). Fen öğrenimi ve öğretimi [Science learning and teaching]. Asil Publishing.
Ausubel, P. D. (1963). The psychology of meaningful verbal learning. New York: Grune & Stratton.
Aydın, F. (2011). The metaphoric perceptions of university students towards “Environment” concept. Eastern Geographical Review, 16(26), 25-44.
Ayvacı, H. Ş., Bülbül, S., Özbek, D., & Suat, Ü. (2018). A study on the development of mental models: space concept. YYU Journal of Education Faculty, 15(1), 1355-1391.
Bahar, M., Johnstone, A. H. & Sutcliffe, R. G. (1999). Investigation of students’ cognitive structure in elementary genetics through word association tests. Journal of Biological Education, 33(3), 134-141.
Benninghaus, J. C., Kremer, K., & Sprenger, S. (2018). Assessing high-school students’ conceptions of global water consumption and sustainability. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 27(3), 250-266.
Bergan-Roller, H. E., Galt, N. J., Helikar, T., & Dauer, J. T. (2020). Using concept maps to characterise cellular respiration knowledge in undergraduate students. Journal of Biological Education, 54(1), 33-46.
Bogdan, R. C. & Biklen, S. K. (1998). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. Allyn and Bacon.
Bosschaart, A., Kuiper, W., & van der Schee, J. (2015). Students' mental models with respect to flood risk in the Netherlands. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 24(2), 131-147.
Bülbül, Y., & Yilmaz, A. (2019). Views of prospective social studies teachers on the concepts of environment, environmental education and environmental citizenship. Journal of International Social Sciences Education, 5(2), 165-183.
Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş. & Demirel, F. (2019). Scientific research methods in education. Pegem Academy.
Chang, S. N. (2007). Externalising students' mental models through concept maps. Journal of Biological Education, 41(3), 107-112.
Clark, C. R., Heimlich, J. E., Ardoin, N. M. & Braus, J. (2020) Using a Delphi study to clarify the landscape and core outcomes in environmental education. Environmental Education Research, (26)3, 381-399, http://doi: 10.1080/13504622.2020.1727859
Coll, R. K., & Treagust, D. F. (2003). Learners’ mental models of metallic bonding: A crossage study. Science Education, 87, 685-707.
Corcoran, P.B. & Wals, A. E. J. (2004). The problematics of sustainability in higher education: an introduction. Higher Education and The Challenge of Sustainability: Problematics, Promise and Practice (Eds: Corcoran, P.B. and Wals, A.E.J.). Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Council of Higher Education [CoHE] (2022). Teacher Training Undergraduate Programs. Rationale for Updates, Innovations and Implementation Principles of the Programs https://www.yok.gov.tr/kurumsal/idari-birimler/egitim-ogretim-dairesi/yeni-ogretmen-yetistirme-lisans-programlari
Creswell, J. W. (2016). Qualitative research methods, qualitative research and research design according to five approaches. Siyasal.
Çiftçi, S., & Kayaer, M. (2022). The effect of environmental education on environmental awareness in higher education. Journal of Management and Economics, 29(1), 93-106.
Çiltaş, A., & Işık, A. (2012). Determination of cognitive models about sequences and series of the elementary mathematics prospective teachers. Erzincan University Journal of Education Faculty, 14(2), 167-182.
Davis, J., (1998). Young children, environmental education and the future. In Graves, Norman (ed.) Education and Environment. World Education Fellowship.
Deisenrieder, V., Müller, S., Knoflach, B., Oberrauch, A., Geitner, C., Stötter, J., & Keller, L. (2022). Young people’s pre-conceptions of the interactions between climate change and soils–looking at a physical geography topic from a climate change education perspective. Journal of Geography, 121(2), 51-66.
Denis, U., Williams, J. J., Dunnamah, A. Y., & Tumba, D. P. (2015). Conceptual change theory as a teaching strategy in environmental education. European Scientific Journal, 11(35), 395-408.
Desjean-Perrotta, B., Moseley, C., & Cantu, L. E. (2008). Preservice teachers' perceptions of the environment: Does ethnicity or dominant residential experience matter? The Journal of Environmental Education, 39(2), 21-32.
Diamond, J. (2011). Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed. Penguin Group.
Doyle, J. K., M. J. Radzicki, & W. S. Trees. (2008). Measuring Change in Mental Models of Complex Dynamic Systems. In Complex Decision Making, edited by J.A. Scott Kelso, 269–294. Springer.
Duit, R., Treagust D.F. & Widodo A. (2013). Teaching science for conceptual change. Theory and practice. S. Vosniadou (Ed.), International handbook of research on conceptual change (2nd ed.), Routledge, pp. 487-503.
Durkan, N. (2020). Investigating thinking and behaviors of the students attending pedagogical teacher certificate program about the environment according to gender variable. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 11(29), 284-292.
Eilam, E., & Trop, T. (2012). Environmental attitudes and environmental behavior –Which is the horse, and which is the cart? Sustainability, 4(9), 2210-2246. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su4092210.
Ekiz, D. (2003). Eğitimde araştırma yöntem ve metodlarına giriş: Nitel, nicel ve eleştirel kuram metodolojileri (Introduction to research methods and methods in education: Qualitative, quantitative and critical theory methodologies). Anı Publishing.
Ercan, F., Taşdere, A., & Ercan, N., (2010). Kelime ilişkilendirme testi aracılığıyla bilişsel yapının ve kavramsal değişimin gözlenmesi (Observation of cognitive structure and conceptual change through word association test). Journal of Turkish Science Education, 7(2), 136-154.
Erten, S. (2004). Çevre eğitimi ve çevre bilinci nedir, çevre eğitimi nasıl?[ What is environmental education and environmental awareness, how is environmental education?]. Çevre ve İnsan Dergisi [Environment and Human Magazine], 65(66), 1-13.
Franco, C. & Colinvaux, D. (2000). Grasping mental models. In Gilbert, J.K. & Boulter, C.J. (Eds.), Developing models in science education (pp. 93–117). Kluwer
Gadgil, S., Nokes-Malach, T. J., & Chi, M. T. (2012). Effectiveness of holistic mental model confrontation in driving conceptual change. Learning and Instruction, 22(1), 47-61.
Glynn, S.M., & Duit, R. (1995). Learning science meaningfully: constructing conceptual models, In S.M. Glynn & R. Duit (Eds.), Learning science in the schools: Researching reforming practice (pp. 3–34). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Greca, I. M., & Moreira, M. A. (2000). Mental models, conceptual models, and modelling. International Journal of Science Education, 22(1), 1–11.
Gumala, Y., Sopandi, W., Kadarohman, A., & Sujana, A. (2019, February). Analysis of air pollution conception on pre-service elementary teachers. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series. IOP Publishing.
Gunderson, R. (2014). Eric Fromm’s Ecological messianism: The first biophilia hypothesis as humanistic social theory. Humanity & Society, 38(2), 182-204.
Hanke, U. (2008). Realizing model-based instruction-the model of model-based instruction, In D. Ifenthaler, P. Pirnay-Dummer & J. M. Spector (Eds.), Understanding Models for Learning and Instruction (175-186). Springer Science+Business Media.
Harrison, A. G. & Treagust, D. F. (2000). A typology of school science models. International Journal of Science Education, 22(9), 1011- 1026.
Higher Education Statistics (2022). Higher Education Information Management System. https://istatistik.yok.gov.tr
Hoban, G., Loughran, J., & Nielsen, W. (2011). Slow-motion: Preservice elementary teachers representing science knowledge through creating multimodal digital animations. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(9), 985-1009.
Houser, J. (2015). Nursing research: reading, using, and creating evidence. (3rd ed.). Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Iliopoulou, I. (2016). Can young students think systemically about the environment? The case of pollution. Education, 3-13, 1–16. http://doi:10.1080/03004279.2016.1266688
Irmak-Kazazoglu, T. (2020). Üniversite öğrencilerinin çevre farkındalık düzeylerinin ve çevre sorunlarına yönelik davranışlarının incelenmesi [Investigation of the environmental awareness levels and their behaviors of environmental problems of university students]. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Hacettepe University.
Jefferson, G. M., Ciro, P. M. & María Andrea, M. S. (2017). Environmental education and the Bogotá River: an intervention to be carried out in Cundinamarca (Colombia). International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education 26(4), 281-296.
Judson, E. (2011). The impact of field trips and family involvement on mental models of the desert environment. International Journal of Science Education, 33(11), 1455–1472. http://doi:10.1080/09500693.2010.495758
Kılcan, B. (2017). Metafor ve eğitimde metaforik çalışmalar için bir uygulama rehberi [An application guide for metaphors and metaphorical studies in education]. Pegem Academy.
Kızılay, E. (2020). Investigation of metaphoric perceptions of pre-service primary school teachers towards environmental problems. International Journal of Eurasian Researches ,8(21), 230-240. http://doi: 10.33692/avrasyad.633966
Koger, S. M. (2013). Psychological and behavioral aspects of sustainability. Sustainability, 5, 3006-3008. http://doi:10.3390/su5073006
Li, Y. (2018). Study of the effect of environmental education on environmental awareness and environmental attitude based on environmental protection law of the people’s republic of China. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(6), 2277-2285.
Libarkin, J. C., Beilfuss, M., & Kurdziel, J. P. (2003). Research methodologies in science education: mental models and cognition in education. Journal of Geoscience Education, 51, 121– 126.
Liu, S. C., & Lin, H. S. (2015). Exploring undergraduate students’ mental models of the environment: Are they related to environmental affect and behavior? The Journal of Environmental Education, 46(1), 23-40.
Lynn, R., Sakar, C., & Cheng, H. (2015). Regional differences in intelligence, income and other socio-economic variables in Turkey. Intelligence, 50, 144-149.
Mahajan, P. & Darbari, N. (2014). A comparative study of environmental awareness of school students in relation to standard and sex. International Journal of Education and Information Studies, 4(1), 5-7.
McKibben, B. (2015). Power to the people: why the rise of green energy makes utility companies nervous. The New Yorker.
Meral, E., Küçük, B. & Gedik, F. (2016). Metaphoric comprehension of training teachers of social studies as regards the concept of environment. Kastamonu Education Journal, 24(1), 65-78.
Merriam, S. B. (2013). Qualitative research a guide to design and implementation. Nobel Academy Publishing.
Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. Sage.
Ministry of National Education [MoNE], (2017), Öğretmenlik mesleği genel yeterlikleri [General Competencies for Teaching Profession]. http://oygm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2018_06/29111119_TeachersGeneralCompetencies.pdf
Mintzes, J., Wandersee, J., & Novak, J. (1998). Teaching science for understanding: The human constructivist view. Academic Press.
Miranda, R. & Blanco, A. (2009). Environmental awareness and paper recycling. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 44(10), 431-449.
Miser, R. (2019). Çevre eğitimi [Environmental education]. Nobel Academy Publishing.
Moseley, C., Desjean‐Perrotta, B., & Utley, J. (2010). The draw‐an‐environment test rubric (DAET‐R): Exploring pre‐service teachers’ mental models of the environment. Environmental Education Research, 16(2), 189-208.
Norman, D. A. (1983). Some Observations on mental models. In D. Gentner, & A. Stevens (Eds.), Mental models. L. Erlbaum Associates
Özata Yücel, A. & Özkan, P. (2015). Determining the environmental perceptions of pre-service science teachers through word association. e-International Journal of Educational Research, 5(4), 41-56. http://doi:10.19160/e-ijer.37841
Özcan, H., & Demirel, R. (2019). Exploring middle school students' cognitive structures about environmental problems through their drawings. Başkent University Journal of Education, 6(1), 68-83.
Özsoy, S. (2012). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin çevre algılarının çizdikleri resimler aracılığıyla incelenmesi [Investigation of primary school students' perceptions of environment by using the pictures they draw]. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice,12(2), 1117-1139.
Özsoy, S. & Ahi, B. (2014). İlkokul öğrencilerinin geleceğe yönelik çevre algılarının çizdikleri resimler aracılığı ile belirlenmesi [Determining primary school students' perceptions of the future environment through the pictures they draw]. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 14 (4), 1557-1582.
Öztürk, E. & Erten, S. (2020). The effect of an international environmental education program greenpack project on preservice science teachers' environmental attitude, knowledge and eco-friend behaviours. ESTUDAM Journal of Education, 5(2), 145-166.
Palmunen, L. M., Lainema, T., & Pelto, E. (2021). Towards a manager's mental model: Conceptual change through business simulation. The International Journal of Management Education, 19(2), 1-15.
Pan, Y.-T., & Liu, S.-C. (2018). Students’ understanding of a groundwater system and attitudes towards groundwater use and conservation. International Journal of Science Education, 40(5), 564–578.
Patton, M.Q. (2018). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Pegem Academy.
Petrou, S., & Korfiatis, K. (2022). Transformations of children’s environmental conceptions through their participation in a school kitchen-garden project. Environmental Education Research, 28(4), 524-544.
Pınar, E., & Yakışan, M. (2017). Analyze of the drawings on environmental concepts of the primary school students. Trakya University Journal of Education Faculty, 8(1), 97-113.
Polat, G., (2013). Determination of the cognitive structures of year secondary school students through word association test techniques. Necatibey Faculty of Education Electronic Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 7(1), 97-120.
Pooley, J. A., & o’Connor, M. (2000). Environmental education and attitudes: Emotions and beliefs are what is needed. Environment and behavior, 32(5), 711-723.
Reinfried, S. (2006) Conceptual change in physical geography and environmental sciences through mental model building: the example of groundwater, International Research in Geographical & Environmental Education, 15(1), 41-61, http://doi: 10.2167/irgee186.0
Rodari, P. (2007). Science and scientists in the drawings of European children. Journal of Science Communication, 6(3), 1-12.
Ryan G. D., Powell R. B., Stern, M. J. & Garst, B. A. (2020). Influence of the natural setting on environmental education outcomes. Environmental Education Research, 26(5), 613-631. http://doi:10.1080/13504622.2020.1738346
Schmidt, J. E. (2007). From intentions to actions: The role of environmental awareness on college students. Journal of undergraduate research, 10(10), 1-4.
Shepardson, D. P. (2005). Student’s ideas: What is an environment? Journal of Environmental Education, 36(4), 49-58.
Shepardson, D. P., Wee, B., Priddy, M., & Harbor, J. (2007). Students' mental models of the environment. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 44(2), 327-348.
Sola, A. O. (2014). Environmental education and public awareness. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 4(3), 333-337.
Sözcü, U., Kıldan, A. O, Aydınözü, D. & İbret, B. Ü. (2016) Bilimsellik değerine ilişkin zihinsel modellerin değişiminin çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi [Investigation of the change of mental models related to scientific value in terms of various variables]. Cumhuriyet International Journal of Education, 5(2), 9-22.
Streubert, H. J., & Carpenter, D. R. (2011). Qualitative research in nursing. (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Subramaniam, K., & Esprivalo Harrell, P. (2013). Framing prospective elementary teachers’ conceptions of dissolving as a ladder of explanations. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 24(7), 1177-1199.
Taş, A. U. (2016). Exploring secondary school students’ mental models of “both the natural and artificial environment”. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Adnan Menderes University.
Tokcan, H. (2015). Sosyal Bilgilerde Kavram Öğretimi [Concept Teaching in Social Studies]. Pegem Academy.
Torunoğlu, E. (2013). Çevre politikaları [Environmental policies]. Anadolu University Publishing.
Tufaner, F., Tufaner, Ç. & Dere, T. (2020). The place and priority of environmental education in higher education. İklim Değişikliği ve Çevre [climate change and environment], 5(1),18-25.
Ültay, E., Dönmez Usta, N., & Durmuş, T. (2017). Descriptive content analysis of mental model studies in education. Education for Life, 31(1), 21-40.
University Ranking by Academic Performance [URAP]. (2022). World Ranking Indicators. https://newtr.urapcenter.org/Rankings/
Valderrama-Hernández, R., Alcántara, L., & Limón, D. (2017). The complexity of environmental education: teaching ideas and strategies from teachers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 237, 968-974.
Valentine, K. D., Kopcha, J. T., & Vagle, M. D. (2018). Phenomenological methodologies in the field of educational communications and technology. Association for Educational Communications & Technology, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-018-0317-2.
Vosniadou, S. (2013). Conceptual Change in Learning and Instruction: The Framework Theory Approach. In International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change, 23–42. Routledge.
Wu, D. (2020). Complementarity of the relevance-theoretic and cognitive linguistic approaches to metaphor study: A Critical Review. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 10(5), 592-597.
Yıldız, K., Gürbüz, P. G., Esentaş, M., Beşikçi, T., & Balikçi, İ. (2021). Analysis of the relation between sustainable environmental education of university students and their attitude towards environmental problems. International Journal of Social Science Research, 10(1), 35-49.
Yıldırım, A. & Şimşek, H. (2016). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri [Qualitative research methods in the social sciences]. Seçkin Publishing.
Yoğurtçu, A., (2021). Lise öğrencilerinin hücre konusundaki kavramsal yapıları, metaforik algıları ve kavram yanılgılarının belirlenmesi (Identifying high school students' conceptual structures, metaphorical perceptions and misconceptions about cell). Unpublished Master's Thesis. Necmettın Erbakan University.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Qualitative Research in Education
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.