The Effects of Movie-Enriched Extensive Reading on TOEFL IBT Vocabulary Expansion and TOEFL IBT Speaking Section Score

Abstract views: 671 / PDF downloads: 643


  • Soran Abubakr Abdulrahman
  • Saban Kara



Extensive reading, graded readers, intensive, movies, novels


A wealth of research has been conducted to compare extensive and intensive reading thanks to their increasing popularity in educational settings globally. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted to measure the effects of movie-enriched extensive reading activities. To this aim, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of movie enriched extensive reading on freshman students` TOEFL IBT vocabulary expansion and TOEFL IBT speaking section scores. In this regard, 40 students studying at an international private university in Erbil, Iraq was divided into two groups using a stratified random sampling method. Control group students (N=20) read and analyzed six graded readers by employing intensive reading, whereas experimental group students (N=20) actively participated in reading prominent novels and watching movie versions of them. A mixed methods design was employed to gather qualitative and quantitative data, respectively, so they were utilized to make better interpretations. Quantitative data were collected through 2 vocabulary and speaking exams related to TOEFL IBT as pre-test and post-test. Additionally, qualitative data were collected through interviews. Results of the independent samples t-test revealed that experimental group students` speaking and vocabulary scores increased significantly, whereas they were not significant enough in the control group. Moreover, students` attitudes towards reading novels and watching movies changed positively based on the interview transcripts. In light of the findings, this study may have some implications for researchers, educators, and authorities seeking opportunities to integrate extensive reading into the curriculum.



Alkire, S. (2010). Teaching novels in EFL/ESL classes. The English-Learning and Languages Review. Retrieved from

Celik, B. (2019). The role of extensive reading in fostering the development of grammar and vocabulary knowledge. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 6(1), 215-223.

Celik, B., & Yildiz, Y. (2017). Commitment to the teaching profession. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 4(2), 93-97. doi: 10.23918/ijsses.v4i2sip93

Celik, B., & Yildiz, Y. (2019). The role of foreign language culture on teaching the language and learner motivation. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 5(4), 150-161. doi: 10.23918/ijsses.v5i4p150

Chen, C. N., Chen, S. C., Chen, S. H. E., & Wey, S. C. (2013). The effects of extensive reading via e-books on tertiary level EFL students' reading attitude, reading comprehension, and vocabulary. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 12(2), 303-312. Retrieved from

Cresswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches by John W. Creswell. Thousand Oaks, Clafornia: SAGE Publication Ltd.

Day, R. R., & Bamford, J. (1998). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.

Day, R. R., & Bamford, J. (2000). Reading reluctant readers. University of Hawai'i Working Papers in English as a Second Language 18 (2). Retrieved from

Gareis, E., Allard, M., & Saindon, J. (2009). The novel as textbook. TESL Canada Journal, 26(2), 136-147.

Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. (2002). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. England: Pearson Education Limited.

Harmer, J. (2001). The practice of English language teaching. London, Pearson& Longman.

Horst, M. (2005). Learning L2 vocabulary through extensive reading: A measurement study. Canadian Modern Language Review, 61(3), 355-382.

Ismaili, M. (2013). The effectiveness of using movies in the EFL classroom–A study conducted at South East European University. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(4), 121. Doi: 10.5901/ajis.2012.v2n4p121

Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2004). Educational reseach: Quantitative, qualitative and mixed approaches. Boston: Pearson Education.

King, J. (2002). Using DVD Feature Films in the EFL Classroom. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 15, 509 - 523. Doi: 10.1076/call.15.5.509.13468

Koby, C. (2017). The anatomy of an extensive reading syllabus. In P. Clements, A. Krause, & H. Brown (Eds.), Transformation in language education. Tokyo: JALT.

Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content Analysis: An introduction to its methodology (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Lin, Y. T. (2019). Taiwanese EFL learners` willingness to communicate in English in the classroom: Impacts of personality, affect, motivation, and communication confidence. The Asia Pacific Education Researcher, 28(2), 101-103. Doi: https://doi:org/10.1007/s40299-018-0417-y

Mart, C.T. (2012). Developing speaking skills through reading. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2 (6), 91-96. Doi:10.5539/ijel.v2n6p91

Novita, L. (2016). Relationship between reading and pronunciation and students’ speaking skills. Proceeding of the International Conference on Teacher Training and Education. Sebelas Maret University, 2(1), 527-532.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). Assessing scientific, reading and mathematical literacy – A Framework for PISA 2009. Paris: OECD Publishing. Retrieved from

Papp, S and Rixon, S (2018) Examining Young Learners: Research and practice in assessing the English offschool-age learners, Studies in Language Testing 47 (1), Cambridge: UCLES/ Cambridge University Press.

Palmer, H. (1921). Principles of language study. Edinburg, Great Britain: World Book Co. Retrieved from

Paran, A. (2003). Intensive reading: English teaching professional. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Pellicer-Sánchez, A., & Schmitt, N. (2010). Incidental vocabulary acquisition from an authentic novel. National Foreign Language Resource Center, 22 (1), 31-55. Retrieved from

Pigada, M. & Schmitt, N. (2006). Vocabulary acquisition from extensive reading: A case study. Reading in a Foreign Language, 18 (1), 1-28. Retrieved from

Renandya, W. A., Hidayati, M., & Ivone, F. M. (2021). Extensive Reading: Top ten implementation issues. JACET Journal.

Rentfrow, P.J., Goldberg, L. R., & Zilca, R. (2011). Listening, watching and reading: The structure and correlates of entertainment preferences. Journal of personality, 79(2), 223-258.

Richards, J.C. & Schmidt, R. (2002). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. London, UK: Routledge.

Sherman, J. (2003). Using authentic video in the language classroom: Cambridge handbooks for language teachers. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.

Waring, R., & Takaki, M. (2003). At what rate do learners learn and retain new vocabulary from reading a graded reader? Reading in a Foreign Language, 15 (2), 1-34. Doi: 10125/66776

Waring, R., & Nation, I. S. (2004). Second language reading and incidental vocabulary learning. Angles on the English speaking world, 4,97-110.

Webometrics. (2021a, July). Top universities by citations. Ranking web of universities. Retrieved from http:// (Access Date: July 25, 2021).

West, M. (1955). Learning to read a foreign language. London, UK: Longman.

Wu, M. L. (2005). Read to enjoy: A case study using popular fiction in an EFL class. Master’s thesis, Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan. [Master`s Thesis, University of Tamkang). Retrieved from

Yildiz, Y. (2017). Extracurricular activities in the steps of aim-based education. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 4(2), 129-135. doi:

Yildiz, Y. (2016). Impact of language-oriented extracurricular activities on academic achievement in Language preparation schools. Journal of Education in Black Sea Region, 1(2), 161-171. Doi:




How to Cite

Abdulrahman, S. A., & Kara, S. (2023). The Effects of Movie-Enriched Extensive Reading on TOEFL IBT Vocabulary Expansion and TOEFL IBT Speaking Section Score. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, (33).