Evaluation of Teacher's Classroom Practices in the Context of Vygotsky's Cultural-Historical Theory


Abstract views: 262 / PDF downloads: 346

Authors

  • Naşide Nur KARAMAN Ankara Üniversitesi
  • Mustafa SEVER Ankara Üniversitesi
  • F. Çağlayan DİNÇER Ankara Üniversitesi

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14689/enad.36.1719

Abstract

The effective continuation of the learning process depends on the teacher's interaction with children. Teachers must be facilitative in this interaction process while guiding children's learning. This study focuses on determining how teachers' classroom practices are reflected in the learning environment in the context of Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory. The study was designed as a case study from qualitative research models. All six teachers who constituted the study's data set worked in the same preschool education institution. Each teacher was observed for five days during the half-day period at the school using the non-participant observer technique. The observations were followed according to the "Teacher Observation Form" prepared by the researchers. This form included five headings: "Use of Language", "Use of Mediators," "Shared Activity," "Zone of the Proximal Development," and "Play." Content analysis was used to analyze the observations. As a result, it was concluded that teachers need to be informed about Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory in terms of theory and practice and that they need to share practices in the theory infrastructure.

References

Ahioğlu, N. (2008). Kültürel-tarihsel kuram çerçevesinde çocuk gelişimi [Child Development within the Framework of Cultural-Historical Theory]. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 41(1), 163-186. Retrieved from https://kitaplar.ankara.edu.tr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/20.500.12575/46865/1147.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Akgün, E., Yarar, M., & Dinçer, Ç. (2011). Okul öncesi öğretmenlerin sınıf içi etkinliklerde kullandıkları sınıf yönetimi stratejilerinin incelenmesi [The Evaluation of Classroom Management Strategies of Preschool Teachers in Classroom Activities]. Pegem Eğitim ve Öğretim Dergisi, 1(3), 1-9. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/209753 Ansari, A., & Purtell, K. M. (2017). Activity settings in full-day kindergarten classrooms and children’s early learning. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 38, 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.09.003 Aras, S. (2016). Free play in early childhood education: A phenomenological study. Early Child Development and Care, 186(7), 1173-1184. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2015.1083558

Åström, F., Björck-Åkesson, E., Sjöman, M., & Granlund, M. (2020). Everyday environments and activities of children and teachers in Swedish preschools. Early Child Development and Care, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2020.1754209 Atak, H. (2017). Piaget ve Vygotsky’nin kuramlarında çocukların toplumsallaşma süreci [Socialization Process of Children in Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories]. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar, 9(2), 163-176. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.281372 Auld, E., & Morris, P. (2019). The OECD and IELS: Redefining early childhood education for the 21st century. Policy Futures in Education, 17(1), 11-26. https://doi.org/10.1177/1478210318823949 Bae, B. (2010). Realizing children's right to participation in early childhood settings: Some critical issues in a Norwegian context. Early Years, 30(3), 205-218. https://doi.org/10.1080/09575146.2010.506598 Başkale, H. (2016). Nitel araştırmalarda geçerlik, güvenirlik ve örneklem büyüklüğünün belirlenmesi [Determination of Validity, Reliability and Sample Size in Qualitative Studies]. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi, 9(1), 23-28. Bayhan, P., & Saranlı, A. G. (2010). Vygotsky’nin kuramına dayanan kendine yönelik konuşma davranışının okul öncesi dönemdeki gelişimi ve uygulamalarda kullanımı [Development and Applications of Preschool Private Speech as Derived from Vygostky’s Theory]. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 30(3), 819-834. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/gefad/issue/6740/90612 Bertram, T., & Pascal, C. (2016). Individual Country Profiles. In T. Bertram & C. Pascal (Eds.), Early childhood policies and systems in eight countries: Findings from IEA's early childhood education study (pp. 139-162). Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39847-1 Blair, C., McKinnon, R. D., & Daneri, M. P. (2018). Effect of the tools of the mind kindergarten program on children’s social and emotional development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 43, 52-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.01.002 Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2001). Tools of the Mind: A Case Study of Implementing the Vygotskian Approach in American Early Childhood and Primary Classrooms. Innodata Monographs 7. Retrieved on 4 November 2019 from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ed455014 Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2009). Tools of the mind: A Vygotskian early childhood curriculum. Early childhood Services, 3(3), 245-262. Plural Publishing. Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2013). Taktikler: Aracıların kullanımı E. Kalkan (Trans.). In G. Haktanır (Ed.), Zihnin araçları erken çocukluk eğitiminde Vygotsky yaklaşımı [Tools of the Mind: The Vygotskian Approach to Early Childhood Education] (2nd ed., pp. 84-102). Anı Yayıncılık. (Original work published 1996) Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2018a). Tools of the Mind: The Vygotskian-Based Early Childhood Program. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 17(3), 223-237. https://doi.org/10.1891/1945-8959.17.3.223 Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2018b). Tools of the Mind: A Vygotskian Early Childhood Curriculum. In M. Fleer & B. van Oers (Eds.), International Handbook of Early Childhood Education (pp. 1095-1111). Springer. Bomer, R. (2003). Things That Make Kids Smart: A Vygotskian Perspective on Concrete Tool Use in Primary Literacy Classrooms. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 3(3), 223-247. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468798403033002

Bradley, B. A., & Reinking, D. (2011). A formative experiment to enhance teacher-child language interactions in a preschool classroom. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 11(3), 362-401. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468798411410802 Bråten, I. (1991). Vygotsky as precursor to metacognitive theory: II. Vygotsky as metacognitivist. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 35(4), 305-320. https://doi.org/10.1080/0031383910350406 Bredekamp, S. (2015). Çocukların öğrenmeleri ve gelişimleri hakkında bildiklerimizi uygulamaya koyma S. Güçhan Özgül, K. Avcı, M. Dal & M. Saçkes (Trans.). In H. Z. İnan & T. İnan (Trans. Eds.), Erken çocukluk eğitiminde etkili uygulamalar [Effective Practices in Early Childhood Education Building a Foundation] (2nd ed., pp. 116-118). Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık. (Original work published 2010) Breive, S. (2020). Student–teacher dialectic in the co-creation of a zone of proximal development: An example from kindergarten mathematics. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 28(3), 413-423. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2020.1755498 Burlacu, F. (2013). The importance of pre-school education in child development. Euromentor Journal-Studies about Education, (02), 153-165. Cabell, S. Q., DeCoster, J., LoCasale-Crouch, J., Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2013). Variation in the effectiveness of instructional interactions across preschool classroom settings and learning activities. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(4), 820-830. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.07.007 Cabell, S. Q., Justice, L. M., McGinty, A. S., DeCoster, J., & Forston, L. D. (2015). Teacher–child conversations in preschool classrooms: Contributions to children's vocabulary development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30, 80-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.09.004 Carr, R. C., Mokrova, I. L., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Burchinal, M. R. (2019). Cumulative classroom quality during pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children’s language, literacy, and mathematics skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 47, 218-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.12.010 Creswell, J. W. (2016). Geçerlik ve Değerlendirme Standartları (O. Birgin, Trans.). In M. Bütün & S. B. Demir (Trans. Eds.), Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri Beş Yaklaşıma Göre Nitel Araştırma ve Araştırma Desenleri [Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design Choosing Among Five Approaches] (3rd ed., pp. 243-267). Siyasal Kitabevi. (Original work published 1997) Cunningham, J. E., Hemmeter, M. L., & Kaiser, A. P. (2020). The relation between teachers’ positive behavior support and language support. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 40(3), 131-142. https://doi.org/10.1177/0271121420943653 Curby, T. W., Grimm, K. J., & Pianta, R. C. (2010). Stability and change in early childhood classroom interactions during the first two hours of a day. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(3), 373-384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.02.004 Diamond, A., Lee, C., Senften, P., Lam, A., & Abbott, D. (2019). Randomized control trial of Tools of the Mind: Marked benefits to kindergarten children and their teachers. PLOS ONE, 14(9), e0222447. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222447 Dünya Bankası [The World Bank], (2013). Türkiye’de Okullarda Mükemmeliyeti Teşvik Etmek (Rapor No. 77722-TR). Emilson, A., & Folkesson, A. M. (2006). Children's participation and teacher control. Early Child Development and Care, 176(3-4), 219-238. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430500039846

Eun, B. (2018). The zone of proximal development as an overarching concept: A framework for synthesizing Vygotsky’s theories. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 51(1), 18-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2017.1421941 Gillespie, A., & Zittoun, T. (2010). Using resources: Conceptualizing the mediation and reflective use of tools and signs. Culture & Psychology, 16(1), 37-62. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354067X09344888 Guba, E. L., & Lincoln, Y. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105-117). Sage Publications. Güler, T. (2010). Erken çocukluk döneminde “oyun planlama” modeli. Eğitim ve Bilim, 32(143). http://egitimvebilim.ted.org.tr/index.php/EB/article/view/836/187 Hapenciuc, A. (2019). The influence of the Russian psychological pedagogy (by LS Lev Vygotsky) upon the model of education curricular design in the American cultural space. International Journal of Social and Educational Innovation (IJSEI), 6(12), 14-19. https://www.journals.aseiacademic.org/index.php/ijsei/article/view/134 Hatfield, B. E., Burchinal, M. R., Pianta, R. C., & Sideris, J. (2016). Thresholds in the association between quality of teacher–child interactions and preschool children’s school readiness skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 36, 561-571. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.09.005 Hausfather, S. J. (1996). Vygotsky and schooling: Creating a social context for learning. Action in Teacher Education, 18(2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/01626620.1996.10462828 Howes, C., Burchinal, M., Pianta, R., Bryant, D., Early, D., Clifford, R., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Ready to learn? Children's pre-academic achievement in pre-kindergarten programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(1), 27-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.05.002 Hu, B. Y., Fan, X., Wu, Z., LoCasale-Crouch, J., Yang, N., & Zhang, J. (2017). Teacher-child interactions and children's cognitive and social skills in Chinese preschool classrooms. Children and Youth Services Review, 79, 78-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2017.05.028 Huang, R., Yang, W., & Li, H. (2019). On the road to participatory pedagogy: A mixed-methods study of pedagogical interaction in Chinese kindergartens. Teaching and Teacher Education, 85, 81-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2019.06.009 Iao, L. S., Tsang, Y. T., Wong, M. Y., & Ho, H. Y. (2015). Talking while thinking about another's mind in preschoolers: Evidence of getting Vygotskian about social cognition. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 31, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.12.001 Jenkins, J. M. (2014). Early childhood development as economic development: Considerations for state-level policy innovation and experimentation. Economic Development Quarterly, 28(2), 147-165. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891242413513791 Justice, L. M., Jiang, H., & Strasser, K. (2018). Linguistic environment of preschool classrooms: What dimensions support children’s language growth?. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 42, 79-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2017.09.003 Keleş, S., & Alisinanoğlu, F. (2014). Observations and Views of Preschool Teachers about Private Speech Term of Vygotsky. Elementary Education Online, 13(1), 205-222. https://www.ilkogretim-online.org/fulltext/218-1596894702.pdf?1666263133 Keleş, S., Yurt, Ö., & Kandır, A. (2018). Kültürel-tarihsel kuram’a göre “–mış gibi oyunlar”: Okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin eğilimlerinin incelenmesi [“Make-Believe Play” According to Cultural- Historical Theory: Investigating Tendencies of Preschool Teachers]. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 8(4), 265-285. https://doi.org/10.19126/suje.476616

Kim, S., Raza, M., & Seidman, E. (2019). Improving 21st-century teaching skills: The key to effective 21st-century learners. Research in Comparative and International Education, 14(1), 99-117. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745499919829214 Kontos, S., & Wilcox-Herzog, A. (1997). Influences on children's competence in early childhood classrooms. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(3), 247-262. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(97)90002-8 Kozulin, A., & Presseisen, B. Z. (1995). Mediated learning experience and psychological tools: Vygotsky's and Feuerstein's perspectives in a study of student learning. Educational Psychologist, 30(2), 67-75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3002_3 Lash, M., Monobe, G., Kursun Koptur, D. U., & Black, F. V. (2016). Seven wonders of the early childhood world. Childhood Education, 92(3), 236-246. https://doi.org/10.1080/00094056.2016.1180904 Li, K., Zhang, P., Hu, B. Y., Burchinal, M. R., Fan, X., & Qin, J. (2019). Testing the ‘thresholds’ of preschool education quality on child outcomes in China. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 47, 445-456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.08.003 Linask, L. (2019). Vygotsky’s natural history of signs. Σημειωτκή-Sign Systems Studies, 47(1-2), 234-256. https://doi.org/10.12697/SSS.2019.47.1-2.10 Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. In Y. S. Lincoln & E. G. Guba (Eds.), Designing a Naturalistic Inquiry (1st ed., pp. 221-249). Sage Publications. Mahn, H. (2012). Vygotsky’s analysis of children’s meaning making processes. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 1(2), 100-126. https://doi.org/10.4471/ijep.2012.07 Maier-Höfer, C. (2015). Attitude and passion: becoming a teacher in early childhood education and care. Early Years, 35(4), 366-380. https://doi.org/10.1080/09575146.2015.1104651 Marginson, S., & Dang, T. K. A. (2016). Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory in the context of globalization. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 37(1), 116-129. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2016.1216827 Marti, M., Melvin, S., Noble, K. G., & Duch, H. (2018). Intervention fidelity of getting ready for school: associations with classroom and teacher characteristics and preschooler’s school readiness skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 44, 55-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.02.010 Mejía-Arauz, R., Rogoff, B., Dayton, A., & Henne-Ochoa, R. (2018). Collaboration or negotiation: Two ways of interacting suggest how shared thinking develops. Current Opinion in Psychology, 23, 117-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2018.02.017 Merriam, S. B. (2013). Nitel vaka (durum) çalışması (S. Turan & D. Yılmaz, Trans.). In S. Turan, (Trans. Ed.), Nitel araştırma desen ve uygulama için bir rehber [Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation] (3rd ed., pp. 39-54). Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık. (Original work published 2009) Ministry of National Education (MoNE) [Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı], (2017). Öğretmenlik mesleği genel yeterlikleri. Öğretmen Yetiştirme ve Geliştirme Genel Müdürlüğü. Ministry of Development (MoD) [Kalkınma Bakanlığı], (2017). Sürdürülebilir kalkınma hedefleri kapsamında Türkiye’nin mevcut durum analizi projesi (Ana Rapor). Retrieved from https://docplayer.biz.tr/117500751-Surdurulebilir-kalkinma-hedefleri-kapsaminda-turkiye-nin-mevcut-durum-analizi-projesi.html Nóvoa, A. (2018). Comparing Southern Europe: The difference, the public, and the common. Comparative Education, 54(4), 548-561. https://doi.org/10.1080/03050068.2018.1528781

Ortega, R., Romera, E. M., & Monks, C. P. (2009). The impact of group activities on social relations in an early education setting in Spain. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 17(3), 343-361. https://doi.org/10.1080/13502930903101545 Öncü, T. (1999). Lev S. Vygotsky's theory of development. Retrieved from https://kitaplar.ankara.edu.tr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/20.500.12575/44355/12706.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Paker, T. (2015). Durum Çalışması. In F. N. Seggie & Y. Bayyurt (Eds.), Nitel araştırma: Yöntem, teknik, analiz ve yaklaşımları (1st ed., pp. 119-134). Anı Yayıncılık. Palut, B. (2005). Dinamik ölçme ve değerlendirme. Eğitim ve Bilim, 30(138). 28-37. http://egitimvebilim.ted.org.tr/index.php/EB/article/view/4991/1089 Papandreou, M., & Yiallouros, S. (2020). Highlighting the features of whole-class interactions in a participatory early childhood environment. Early Child Development and Care, 190(4), 461-477. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2018.1479402 Phillips, B. M., Zhao, Y., & Weekley, M. J. (2018). Teacher language in the preschool classroom: Initial validation of a classroom environment observation tool. Early Education and Development, 29(3), 379-397. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2017.1408371 Phillips, D. A., Gormley, W. T., & Lowenstein, A. E. (2009). Inside the pre-kindergarten door: Classroom climate and instructional time allocation in Tulsa's pre-K programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24(3), 213-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.05.002 Pianta, R. C. (2017) Destekleyici ilişkiler neden gereklidir?. In D. Şahin Ası & Ş. Ocak Karabay (Trans. Eds.), Çocuklar ve öğretmenler arasındaki ilişkilerin zenginleştirilmesi [Enhancing Relationships Between Children and Teachers] (1st ed., pp. 7-22). Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık. (Original work published 1999) Rojas, N. M., & Abenavoli, R. M. (2021). Preschool teacher-child relationships and children's expressive vocabulary skills: The potential mediating role of profiles of children's engagement in the classroom. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 56, 225-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2021.04.005 Schmitt, S. A., Pratt, M. E., Korucu, I., Napoli, A. R., & Schmerold, K. L. (2018). Preschool classroom quality and social-emotional functioning: Findings across geographic regions. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 43, 11-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2017.11.002 Sever, M. (2019). Global Education Policies of UNESCO and The World Bank: A Comparison Study. Kalem Eğitim ve İnsan Bilimleri Dergisi, 9(2), 647-656. https://doi.org/10.23863/kalem.2019.141 Sharkins, K., Newton, A., Causey, C., & Ernest, J. M. (2017). Flipping theory: Ways in which children’s experiences in the 21st century classroom can provide insight into the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky. International Journal of Early Childhood Education Care, 6, 11-18. https://doi.org/10.37134/saecj.vol6.2.2017 Sheridan, S., Williams, P., & Pramling Samuelsson, I. (2014). Group size and organisational conditions for children’s learning in preschool: a teacher perspective. Educational Research, 56(4), 379-397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.07.007 Smidt, W., & Embacher, E. M. (2020). How do activity settings, preschool teachers’ activities, and children’s activities relate to the quality of children’s interactions in preschool? Findings from Austria. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 28(6), 864-883. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2020.1836586 Ünlü, C., & Tunç Pekkan, Z. (2019). Okul öncesi sınıfında olumlu eğitim iklimi geliştirmek için durum çalışması ile çözüm arayışı [A Case Study for Improving a Beginner Preschool Teacher’sClassroom Management skills and Developing Positive Classroom Enviroment]. Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Eğitim Dergisi, 36(2), 67-91. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/buje/issue/50648/659662 Veraksa, A., Gavrilova, M., & Bukhalenkova, D. (2019). Association between the quality of teacher-child interaction and language development. Voprosy obrazovaniya/Educational Studies Moscow, 2 (eng), 159-178. https://doi.org/10.17323/1814-9545-2019-2-159-178 Veraksa, N., & Veraksa, A. (2018). Lev Vygotsky’s cultural-historical theory of development and the problem of mental tools. Papeles del Psicólogo/Psychologist Papers, 39(2), 150-154. https://doi.org/10.23923/pap.psicol2018.2862 Veresov, N. (2004). Zone of proximal development (ZPD): The hidden dimension. A. L. Ostern & R. Heila-Ylikallio (Eds.), Sprak som kultur – brytningar I tidoch rum. – Language as culture – tensions in time and space. Vol. 1, pp. 13-30, Vasa. Von Suchodoletz, A., Fäsche, A., Gunzenhauser, C., & Hamre, B. K. (2014). A typical morning in preschool: Observations of teacher–child interactions in German preschools. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 509-519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.05.010 Vygotsky, L. S. (2018). Düşünce ve konuşmanın genetik kökenleri. B. Erdoğdu (Trans. Ed.), Düşünce ve dil [Thought and Language] (pp. 39-40). Roza Yayınevi. (Original work published 1934) White, K. M. (2020). Building strong teacher–child relationships in today’s kindergarten classroom: Focusing on opportunities versus obstacles. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 18(3), 275-286. https://doi.org/10.1177/1476718X20938092 Winsler, A., De Leon, J. R., Wallace, B. A., Carlton, M. P., & Willson-Quayle, A. (2003). Private speech in preschool children: Developmental stability and change, across-task consistency, and relations with classroom behaviour. Journal of Child Language, 30(3), 583–608. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000903005671 Yang, Y., & Hu, B. Y. (2019). Chinese preschool teachers’ classroom instructional support quality and child-centered beliefs: A latent profile analysis. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 80(1), 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.12.021 Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2013). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri [Qualitative research methods for the social sciences] (9th ed.). Seçkin Yayıncılık. Yin, R. K. (2017). Durum çalışması yöntemi üzerine kısa bir hatırlatma. In İ. Günbayı (Trans.), Durum çalışması araştırması uygulamaları [Applications of Case Study Research] (3rd ed., pp. 3-19). Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık. (Original work published 2012)

Downloads

Published

2023-10-30

How to Cite

KARAMAN, N. N., SEVER, M., & DİNÇER, F. Çağlayan. (2023). Evaluation of Teacher’s Classroom Practices in the Context of Vygotsky’s Cultural-Historical Theory. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, (36), 261–296. https://doi.org/10.14689/enad.36.1719