Parenting Perceptions and Experiences of Healthcare Professionals Employed in Contact Tracing Teams

Abstract views: 163 / PDF downloads: 183




Pandemic, contact tracing, family dynamics, family roles, parenting perception


The pandemic has mandated some healthcare workers to provide contact tracing services. The present study aimed to discuss the parenting perceptions and experiences of healthcare professionals assigned to contact tracing teams. We carried out this phenomenological study with 29 mothers and 26 fathers selected using the purposive sampling techniques. We collected the data using a demographic information form and a parent interview form and analyzed them using the content analysis method. The results revealed that the parents attempted to balance between the risks of their tasks and their parenting roles. Also, their perception of protecting their families was the basis of their efforts to protect themselves. Moreover, the social distance to family members revealed longing and intimacy expectation among the participants. The pandemic has significantly impacted families, which is exponentially dramatic for contact tracing teams as health workers. Therefore, it seems significant to carry out counseling works with such families.


Aktan Kibar F., Devran.Muharremoğlu Z. Oturak G., Tunalı Çokluk S., Güven E. A., Onur İ. Evaluation of Anxiety Levels and Sleep Quality of Health Care Workers Working in Filiation During the COVID-19 Pandemic (COVID-19 Pandemisi Süresince Filyasyonda Görevli Sağlık Çalışanlarının Anksiyete Düzeylerinin ve Uyku Kalitelerinin Değerlendirilmesi). TJFMPC, 2022;16 (1): 66-75.

Allegranzi, B., Nejad, S. B., Combescure, C., Graafmans, W., Attar, H., Donaldson, L., & Pittet, D. (2011). Burden of endemic health-care-associated infection in developing countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 377(9761), 228–241.

Almis, H., Han Almis, B., & Bucak, I. H. (2021). Mental health of children of health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 13591045211016528.

Amakiri, P. C., Chude, C. F., Oradiegwu, S. U., Ipsita Pramanik, I., Anoka, C. F., & Ezeoke, A. Q. (2020). Psychological effect of pandemic COVID-19 on families of health care professionals. British Journal of Psychology Research, 8(2), 1–7.

Arafa, A., Mohammed, Z., Mahmoud, O., Elshazley, M., & Ewis, A. (2021). Depressed, anxious, and stressed: What have healthcare workers on the frontlines in Egypt and Saudi Arabia experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic?. Journal of affective disorders, 278, 365-371.

Bai, Y., Lin, C.-C., Lin, C.-Y., Chen, J.-Y., Chue, C.-M., & Chou, P. (2004). Survey of stress reactions among health care workers involved with the SARS outbreak. Psychiatric Services, 55(9), 1055–1057.

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020a). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912–920.

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020b). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, Vol. 395, pp. 912–920. Lancet Publishing Group.

Coşkun Şimşek, D., & Günay, U. (2021). Experiences of nurses who have children when caring for COVID‐19 patients. International Nursing Review, 68(2), 219–227.

Creswell, J. W., Hanson, W. E., Clark Plano, V. L., & Morales, A. (2007). Qualitative research designs: Selection and implementation. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(2), 236–264.

Creswell, J. W. (2021). Qualitative research methods, qualitative research and research design according to five approaches. (Translater Ed. Mesut Tüm, Selçuk Beşir Demir). Siyasal Publication.

Çakmak, G., & Öztürk, Z. A. (2021). Being Both a Parent and a Healthcare Worker in the Pandemic: Who Could Be Exhausted More? Healthcare, 9(5), 564.

Drisko, J. W., & Maschi, T. (2016). Content analysis. Pocket Guides to Social Work R. Oxford University Press.

Emerson, R. W. (2015). Convenience sampling, random sampling, and snowball sampling: How does sampling affect the validity of research? Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 109(2), 164–168.

Etikan, I., & Bala, K. (2017). Sampling and sampling methods. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 5(6), 00149.

Fardin, M. A. (2020). COVID-19 and anxiety: A review of psychological impacts of infectious disease outbreaks. Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases, 15(COVID-19).

Gassman-Pines, A., Ananat, E. O., & Fitz-Henley, J. (2020). COVID-19 and parent-child psychological well-being. Pediatrics, 146(4).

González-Calvo, G., & Arias-Carballal, M. (2021). A World Through Glass: A Narrative Around the Family Experiences During the Confinement of COVID-19. Journal of Family Issues, 0(0), 0192513X211024989.

Grover, S., Sahoo, S., Mehra, A., Avasthi, A., Tripathi, A., Subramanyan, A., … Mishra, K. K. (2020). Psychological impact of COVID-19 lockdown: An online survey from India. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 62(4), 354.

Ho, C. S. H., Chee, C. Y., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Mental health strategies to combat the psychological impact of COVID-19 beyond paranoia and panic. Ann Acad Med Singapore, 49(1), 1–3.

Jiang, H., Nan, J., Lv, Z., & Yang, J. (2020). Psychological impacts of the COVID-19 epidemic on Chinese people: Exposure, post-traumatic stress symptom, and emotion regulation. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 13(6), 252.

Jiao, W. Y., Wang, L. N., Liu, J., Fang, S. F., Jiao, F. Y., Pettoello-Mantovani, M., & Somekh, E. (2020). Behavioral and emotional disorders in children during the COVID-19 epidemic. The Journal of Pediatrics, 221, 264.

Kang, L., Li, Y., Hu, S., Chen, M., Yang, C., Yang, B. X., … Ma, X. (2020). The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. The Lancet Psychiatry. 7(3): e14.

Keshavan, M. S. (2020). Pandemics and psychiatry: repositioning research in context of COVID-19. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 102159.

Koinis, A., Giannou, V., Drantaki, V., Angelaina, S., Stratou, E., & Saridi, M. (2015). The impact of healthcare workers job environment on their mental-emotional health. Coping strategies: the case of a local general hospital. Health Psychology Research, 3(1).

Kontoangelos, K., Economou, M., & Papageorgiou, C. (2020). Mental health effects of COVID-19 pandemia: a review of clinical and psychological traits. Psychiatry investigation, 17(6), 491.

Kuckartz, U. (2014). Qualitative text analysis: A guide to methods, practice and using software. Sage.

Kuckartz, U., & Rädiker, S. (2019). Analyzing qualitative data with MAXQDA. Springer.

Lai, J., Ma, S., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Hu, J., Wei, N., … Li, R. (2020). Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Network Open, 3(3), e203976–e203976.

Leonhardt, D., & Serkez, Y. (2020). America Will Struggle After Coronavirus. These Charts Show Why. The New York Times.

Li, W., Yang, Y., Liu, Z.-H., Zhao, Y.-J., Zhang, Q., Zhang, L., … Xiang, Y.-T. (2020). Progression of mental health services during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 16(10), 1732.

Liu, J. J., Bao, Y., Huang, X., Shi, J., & Lu, L. (2020). Mental health considerations for children quarantined because of COVID-19. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4(5), 347–349.

Maunder, R., Hunter, J., Vincent, L., Bennett, J., Peladeau, N., Leszcz, M., ... & Mazzulli, T. (2003). The immediate psychological and occupational impact of the 2003 SARS outbreak in a teaching hospital. Cmaj, 168(10), 1245-1251.

Miho, A., & Thévenon, O. (2020). Treating all children equally?: Why policies should adapt to evolving family living arrangements.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (Second Edition). Sage Publishing.

Millett, G. A., Honermann, B., Jones, A., Lankiewicz, E., Sherwood, J., Blumenthal, S., & Sayas, A. (2020). White counties stand apart: The primacy of residential segregation in COVID-19 and HIV diagnoses. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 34(10), 417–424.

Neyişci, N., Erçetin, Ş. Ş., Açıkalın, Ş. N., Koçtürk, N., & Potas, N. (2021). Quality of Life, Family Climate, and Sense of Family Coherence During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Modeling of Triple-Serial Mediators. Journal of Family Issues, 0(0), 0192513X211030041.

Nishida, S., Nagaishi, K., Motoya, M., Kumagai, A., Terada, N., Kasuga, A., … Miyajima, S. (2021). Dilemma of physician-mothers faced with an increased home burden and clinical duties in the hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic. PloS One, 16(6), e0253646.

Odriozola-González, P., Planchuelo-Gómez, Á., Irurtia, M. J., & de Luis-García, R. (2020). Psychological symptoms of the outbreak of the COVID-19 confinement in Spain. Journal of Health Psychology, 1359105320967086.

Orgilés, M., Morales, A., Delvecchio, E., Mazzeschi, C., & Espada, J. P. (2020). Immediate psychological effects of the COVID-19 quarantine in youth from Italy and Spain. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2986.

Özdin, S., & Bayrak Özdin, Ş. (2020). Levels and predictors of anxiety, depression and health anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic in Turkish society: The importance of gender. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 66(5), 504–511.

Parıldar, H. (2021). The Nameless Warriors of Filiation (Filyasyonun İsimsiz Savaşçıları). Turkish Journal of Family Practice, 25(1), 34-36.

Park, S. E. (2020). Epidemiology, virology, and clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus Disease-19). Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics, 63(4), 119.

Philpott, L. F., Leahy-Warren, P., FitzGerald, S., & Savage, E. (2017). Stress in fathers in the perinatal period: A systematic review. Midwifery, 55, 113–127.

Randell, K. A., Patel, A. K., & Talib, H. J. (2021). Parenting Pressures Among Academic Pediatricians During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Pediatrics, 147(4), e2020033159.

Rossi, R., Socci, V., Pacitti, F., di Lorenzo, G., di Marco, A., Siracusano, A., & Rossi, A. (2020). Mental health outcomes among frontline and second-line health care workers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Italy. JAMA Network Open, 3(5), e2010185–e2010185.

Russell, B. S., Hutchison, M., Tambling, R., Tomkunas, A. J., & Horton, A. L. (2020). Initial challenges of caregiving during COVID-19: Caregiver burden, mental health, and the parent–child relationship. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 51(5), 671–682.

Spinelli, M., Lionetti, F., Pastore, M., & Fasolo, M. (2020). Parents’ stress and children’s psychological problems in families facing the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1713.

Starks, H., & Brown Trinidad, S. (2007). Choose your method: A comparison of phenomenology, discourse analysis, and grounded theory. Qualitative Health Research, 17(10), 1372–1380.

Suri, H. (2011). Purposeful sampling in qualitative research synthesis. Qualitative Research Journal. 11(2), 63-75.

T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı. (2020, August 24). Covid-19 Guide General Information Epidemiology and Diagnosis (Covid-19 Rehberi Genel Bilgiler Epidemiyoloji ve Tanı).

Toran, M., Sak, R., Xu, Y., Şahin-Sak, İ. T., & Yu, Y. (2021). Parents and children during the COVID-19 quarantine process: Experiences from Turkey and China. Journal of Early Childhood Research. 19(1) 21–39.

Varner, C. (2020). Parents on the front lines of COVID-19 face tough choices. CMAJ, 192 (17) E467-E468;

Varol, G., & Tokuç, B. (2020). The Evaluation of COVID-19 Pandemic Course in Turkey in Public Health Aspects (Halk Sağlığı Boyutuyla Türkiye’de Covid-19 Pandemisinin Değerlendirmesi). Namık Kemal Medical Journal, 8(3), 579–594.

Vigouroux, S. le, Lebert-Charron, A., Wendland, J., Boujut, E., Scola, C., & Dorard, G. (2021). COVID-19 and Parental Burnout: Parents Locked Down but Not More Exhausted. Journal of Family Issues, 0(0), 0192513X211030038.

Wang, Y., Di, Y., Ye, J., & Wei, W. (2021). Study on the public psychological states and its related factors during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in some regions of China. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 26(1), 13–22.

Yıldırım, S. (2020). Social-Psychological View of the Epidemics: Covid-19 (Corona Virus) Pandemic Case (Salgınların Sosyal-Psikolojik Görünümü: Covid-19 (Koronavirüs) Pandemi Örneği). Electronic Turkish Studies, 15(4), 1331-1351.

Yucel, D., & Latshaw, B. A. (2021). How Do Mothers’ and Fathers’ Work–Family Conflict Impact Children’s Problem Behaviors? Journal of Family Issues, 42(3), 571–598.

Zhou, Y., & Chen, L. (2020). Twenty-year span of global coronavirus research trends: A bibliometric analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), 3082.




How to Cite

Gursoy, F., Eraslan, A. N., Argut, N., Oz, S., Cakcak, D., Yavuzekinci, M., Sezer, F., & Ikiz, S. (2023). Parenting Perceptions and Experiences of Healthcare Professionals Employed in Contact Tracing Teams. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, (35).