The Connection Between Forest School and Preschool Programs: A Comparison Study


Abstract views: 202 / PDF downloads: 326

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14689/enad.36.1711

Keywords:

Preschool education, preschool curriculum, forest school approach

Abstract

The forest school approach, implemented in an increasing number of schools globally, offers opportunities for children to explore and engage in activities in natural settings. In the preschool period, considered critical for children's overall development at the beginning of their lives, being intertwined with nature supports children’s becoming active learners. In early years education, in this manner, programs are formed based on children's developmental and individual needs through the Preschool Education Program developed by the Ministry of National Education and implemented in 2013 to engage students actively. As all early-year institutions in Turkey are required to follow the guidelines in this program, this study aims to examine the connection between the program and the forest school approach to highlight similarities and differences so that the place of the forest school approach in the program can be understood. The data consisted of program documents and an extensive literature review on the forest school approach. In addition, in order to analyze the data, we engaged in document analysis. Results showed that the preschool program and the forest school approach coincided. Therefore, it is suggested that preschool programs in early years classrooms should include more nature-related activities.

References

Agirreazkuenaga, L. (2022). Environmental and sustainability education: A critical analysis of evaluation instruments through a research-practice partnership. Environmental Education Research, 28(5),695-714. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2022.2031898

Ahi, B., & Kahriman-Pamuk, D. (2021). "Environment is like nature": opinions of children attending forest kindergarten about the concept of environment. International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education, 11(2), 91-110.

Ajaps, S., & Forh Mbah, M. (2022). Towards a critical pedagogy of place for environmental conservation. Environmental Education Research, 28(4), 508-523. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2022.2050889

Akkaya, D. (2009). Evaluation of teachers' views on the implementation of the 2006 pre-school education program (the example of Kayseri province). [Unpublished master's thesis]. Erciyes University.

Altun, D. (2018). Examination of book centers in preschool classrooms. H. Gur and H. H. Şahan (Ed.). In the Proceedings Full Text Book (p. 205-2015). International Necatibey Education and Social Sciences Research Congress. https://www.academia.edu

Andrachuk, H., Edgar, T., Eperjesi, P., Filler, C., Groves, J., Kaknevicius, J., Lahtinen, R., Mason, J., Molyneux, L., Morcom, L., Petrini, G., Piersol, L., Power, M., & Young, J. (2014). Forest and nature school in Canada: A head, heart, hands approach to outdoor learning. Retrieved from http://childnature.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/FSC-Guide1.pdf

Arı, A. (2013). Revised Bloom, Solo, Fink, Dettmer taxonomies in cognitive domain classification and their international recognition. Uşak University Journal of Social Sciences, 6, 2-259.

Aysu, B., & Aral, N. (2016). Examining the views and practices of preschool teachers about learning centers. Kastamonu Journal of Education, 24 (5), 2561-2574.

Bal, E., & Kaya, G. (2020). Investigation of Forest School Concept by Forest School Teachers' Viewpoints. International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education, 10(2), 167-180.

Bereday, G. Z. F. (1964). Comparative Method in Education. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Burns, E. A., & Manouchehri, B. (2021). Reconnecting Children with Nature: Foundation and Growth of the Nature Schools Movement in Iran. Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 17(3- In Progress). https://doi.org/10.21601/ijese/10934

Chawla, L., & Gould, R. (2020). Childhood nature connection and constructive hope: A review of research on connecting with nature and coping with environmental loss. People and Nature, 2(3), 619-642. https://doi.org/10.1002/pan3.10128

Coccia, M., & Benati, I. (2018). Comparative Studies. In A. Farazmand (Ed.), Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance (pp. 1-7). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_1197-1

Connolly, M., & Haughton, C. (2017). The perception, management and performance of risk amongst Forest School educators. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 38(2), 105-124. https://doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2015.1073098

Constable, K. (2017). The outdoor classroom ages 3-7: Using Ideas from forest school to enrich learning. Routledge.

Cutter-Mackenzie-Knowles, A., Malone, K., & Hacking, E. B. (2020). Research Handbook on Childhoodnature. Springer.

Çamlıbel Çakmak, Ö. (2010). Family involvement in pre-school education institutions. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 20(1),1-17.

Çelebi, M. (2002), The role of nature education activities in revealing leadership skills. [Unpublished PhD Thesis]. Abant İzzet Baysal University.

Çiftçi, K. (2019). Investigation of the effect of nature education on social skills of preschool children. [Master Thesis]. Abant İzzet Baysal University.

Dale, R. G., Powell, R. B., Stern, M. J., & Garst, B. A. (2020). Influence of the natural setting on environmental education outcomes. Environmental Education Research, 26(5), 613-631. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2020.1738346

Davis, B., & Waite, S. (2005). Forest schools: An evaluation of the opportunities and challenges in early years. University of Plymouth report. Retrieved from https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/uploads/production/document/path/6/6761/Forestschoofinalreport2.pdf

Dillon, J., Morris, M., O'Donnell, L., Reid, A., Rickinson, M., & Scott, W. (2005). Engaging and Learning with the Outdoors – The Final Report of the Outdoor Classroom in a Rural Context Action Research Project.

Dilek, Ö. (2019). Evaluation of the contribution of forest school practices to the development of children. [Unpublished master's thesis]. Kastamonu University.

Düzgün, Ü. (2014). Preschool teachers' views on the pre-school education program and the implementation of the 2012 changes (Kayseri province example). [Unpublished master's thesis]. Erciyes University.

Erdoğan, M., Bahar, M., & Uşak, M. (2011). High school 9-12, which was started to be implemented in 2007. Environmental education in primary biology curriculum. Educational Sciences in Theory and Practice, 12(3), 2217-2235.

Eroğlu, S., B. (2020). The philosophy, basic principles and safety-health procedures of the forest school's approach. S. Yılmaz-Uysal & T. Coşkun-Tuncay (Ed.), Forest pedagogy in early childhood education (pp. 23-59). Nobel.

Forest School Community (2011). Principles and criteria for good practice. Access address: https://www.forestschoolassociation.org/full-principles-and-criteria-for-good-practice.

Forest Education Initiative (2019). Background to FEI forest schools. Erişim adresi: http://www.owlsscotland.sbp-creative-dev.co.uk/local-options/forest kindergarten

Fox, J. E., & Schirrmacher (2018). The development of art and creativity in children. (N. Aral & G. Duman, Trans.). Nobel Publishing House (Original work published 2012).

Garden, A., & Downes, G. (2021). A systematic review of forest schools literature in England. Education 3-13, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2021.1971275

Gruno, J., & Gibbons, S. L. (2020). Incorporating Nature-based Physical Activity in Physical and Health Education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 91(3), 26-34. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2019.1705210

Güler, D. S. (2004). Evaluations of the administrators of the institution on taking managerial and leadership responsibility in the implementation of the preschool education program. Proceedings of the OMEP 2003 World Council Meeting and Conference 3 (pp. 124-134). Istanbul: Ya-pa Publications.

Güven, S., & Yılmaz, N. (2017). Role and Importance of Family at Preschool Children Environmental Education. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 6(4). https://doi.org/10.14207/ejsd.2017.v6n4p105

Häggström, M. (2019). Lived experiences of being-in-the-forest as experiential sharing with the more-than-human world. Environmental Education Research, 25(9), 1334-1346. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2019.1633275

Harris, F. (2017). The nature of learning at forest school: Practitioners' perspectives. Education 3-13 International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 45(2), 272-291

Harwood, D., Boileau, E., Dabaja, Z., & Julien, K. (2020). Exploring the national scope of outdoor nature-based early learning programs in Canada: Findings from a large-scale survey study. The International Journal of Holistic Early Learning and Development, 6, 1-24.

Hunter, R. H., & Jordan, R. C. (2022). The effects of educator's level of environmental literacy on their issue identification practices. Environmental Education Research, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2022.2045003

Huppertz, N. (2004). Handbuch waldkindergarten: Konzeption, methodik, erfahrungen [Forest kindergarten handbook: Concept, methodology, experiences]. Freiburg: PAIS Verlag.

İş, A. (2017). Preschool and classroom teachers' perceptions of the level of realization of the achievements in the 2013 pre-school education program. [Unpublished master's thesis]. Fırat University.

Kahriman-Pamuk, D. (2020). An Exploration of Parents' Perceptions Concerning the Forest Preschool. International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education, 10(2), 237-250.

Kanyılmaz Canlı, E., S., & Temel, Z., F. (2022). Evaluation of a forest school application, 62, 431-454.

Kenny, K., E. & Rogers, R. (2015). Cedarsong natüre school teaching and program manual. Vashon, WA: Cedargons Nature School.

Kernan, M. (2012). Parental Involvement in Early Learning: A Review of Research, Policy and Good Practice, İnternational Child Development Initiatives ve Bernard van Leer Foundation.http://www.bernardvanleer.org/files/Parental_involvement_in_early_learning.pdf

Kılıç, Z. (2020). Pre-school education programs. In E. Yılmaz (Ed.), Introduction to Early Childhood Education (pp. 171-205). Educational Book.

Kılıç, Z., Tunçeli, H. İ. & Ünsal, F. Ö. (2021). Opinions of pre-school teachers on the types of activities they prefer to implement in their education-teaching processes. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES), 54 (1), 69-90. DOI: 10.30964/auebfd.696279

Kılınc, F. E., Kurtulmus, Z., Kaynak-Ekici, K. B. and Bektas, N. (2021). The analysis of preschool teachers' activity planning skills: Adaptation, parental involvement and evaluation, Trakya Journal of Education, 11(1), 252-266.

Kıyıcı, B.F., Yiğit, E.A. & Darçın, E.S. (2014). Examination of the changes in the environmental literacy levels of teacher candidates with nature education and their views. Trakya Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 4(1), 17-27.

Kiz, S., & Sincar, M. (2020). Evaluation of preschool education within the scope of compulsory education. Gaziantep Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 4(1), 10-31.

Knight, S. (2013a). The impact of forest school on education for sustaınable develepment in early years in England, S. Knight (Der.) International perspectives on forest school içinde, (ss.1-11), Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Knight, S. (2013b). Forest school and outdoor learning in early years. Sage Publications.

Kopnina, H., & Cherniak, B. (2015). Cultivating a Value for Non-Human Interests through the Convergence of Animal Welfare, Animal Rights, and Deep Ecology in Environmental Education. Education Sciences, 5, 363-379. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci5040363

Küçükturan, G., Altun, A. & Akbaba Altun, S. (2013). Applications for the development of the 2013 program in Turkey. The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 6, 783-801.

Lamb, T. E. (2011). Fragile ıdentities: exploring learner ıdentity, learner autonomy and motivation through young learners' voices. The Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, Special Issue: 14(2), 68-85.

Larimore, R. (2016). Defining Nature-Based Preschools. The International Journal of Early Childhood Environmental Education, 4(1), 33-37.

Leather, M. (2018). A critique of "Forest School" or something lost in translation. Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education, 21(1), 5-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42322-017-0006-1

Leea, C. K., & Bailie, P. E. (2019). Nature-based education: using nature trails as a tool to promote inquiry-based science and math learning in young children. Science Activities, 56(4), 147-158. https://doi.org/10.1080/00368121.2020.1742641

Louv, R. (2008). Last child in the woods: Sawing our chilren from natüre deficit disorder. Algonquin Books, Chapel Hill.

Malone, K., Truong, S., & Gray, T. (2017). Reimagining Sustainability in Precarious Times. Springer.

Martín-Ezpeleta, A., Martínez-Urbano, P., & Echegoyen-Sanz, Y. (2022). Let's read green! A comparison between approaches in different disciplines to enhance preservice teachers' environmental attitudes. Environmental Education Research, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2022.2050186

Merritt, E. G., Stern, M. J., Powell, R. B., & Frensley, B. T. (2022). A systematic literature review to identify evidence-based principles to improve online environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2022.2032610

Ministry of National Education (2013). Preschool education program. www.meb.gov.tr.

Murray, R. & O'Brien, E., A. (2005). Such enthusiasm-ajoy to see: An evaluation of forest school in England. Farnham, England: Forest Research.

O'Brien, E., & R. Murray. (2006). A marvellous opportunity for children to learn: A participatory evaluation of Forest School in England and Wales. Farnham: Forest Research. Retrieved from https://www.forestresearch.gov.uk/documents/805/ fr0112forestschoolsreport .pdf

Ocak, İ., & Korkmaz, Ç. (2018). An Examination of The Views of Science and Pre-School Teachers on NonFormal Learning Environments. 4(1), 18-38.

Ondieki, L. (2012). A study of parental ınvolvement in preschoolers' academic work in dandora educational zone of nairobi county Kenya. (Unpublished master "s thesis). Nairobi University.

Özdemir, M. (2010). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Study on the Methodological Problem in Social Sciences. Eskişehir Osmangazi University Journal of Social Sciences, 11(1), 323-343.

Paslı, A., M. (2019). Re-establishing the relationship between the natural environment, the city and the child “Nature-based education in Scandinavia and the example of the Swedish forest school”. [Unpublished master's thesis]. Istanbul City University.

Rickinson, M., Dillon, J., Teamey, K., Morris, M., Choi, M., Sanders, D., & Benefield, P. (2004). A review of research on outdoor learning. National Foundation for Educational Research and King's College London.

Sapsağlam, Ö. (2013). Pre-school education programs (1952-2013) with the dimension of evaluation. International Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, (1)1, 63-73.

Silverman, J., & Corneau, N. (2017). From nature deficit to outdoor exploration: curriculum for sustainability in Vermont's public schools. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 17(3), 258-273. https://doi.org/10.1080/14729679.2016.1269235

Slade, M., Lowery, C. & Bland, K. (2013). Evaluating the impact of Forest Schools: Collaboration between a University and Primary School. Support for Learning, 28(2), 66-72.

Sobel, D. (2014). Forest and natüre school in Canada: A head, heart, hands approach to outdoor learning. (Der.) Rebecca Carruthers Den Hoed.Canada: Forest School.

Sönmez, D. (2020). Investigation of Theses Related to Forest School Approach in Turkey. Bingol University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, (20), 623-638. https://doi.org/10.29029/busbed.738531

Şahin, F. & Ünver, N. (2005). Family Participation in Preschool Education Programs. Kastamonu Journal of Education, (13)1, 23-30.

Waite, S., Bølling, M., & Bentsen, P. (2015). Comparing apples and pears?: a conceptual framework for understanding forms of outdoor learning through comparison of English Forest Schools and Danishudeskole. Environmental Education Research, 22(6), 868-892. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2015.1075193

Williams-Siegfredson, J. (2012). Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach. Early Years Education in Practice. Routledge.

Williams-Siegfredsen, J. (2017). Understanding the Danish forest school approach. Early Horizons, 6(1), 8-9. Retrieved from https://www.asg.com.au/doc/default-source/early-horizons/asg_eh_2017_issue_6-1_web_fa.pdf?sfvrsn=2

Wilson, D. N. (2003). The Future of Comparative and International Education in a Globalized World. International Review of Education, 49(1-2), 15-33.

Yardımcı, E., (2009). The effect of the activity-based nature education in the summer science camp on the nature perceptions of primary school 4th and 5th grade children. [Unpublished master's thesis]. Abant İzzet Baysal University.

Yıldırım, A. & Şimşek, H. (2011). Qualitative research methods in the social sciences. Seckin Publishing.

Yılmaz, A., Akbaba, F. D., Halıpınar, F. M., Oral, S., & Ulusoy Ünlü, A. (2021). Examination of the preschool education activity book according to the revised Bloom's taxonomy. Journal of Uludag University Faculty of Education, 34(1), 343-385. https://doi.org/10.19171/uefad.790815

Yılmaz Bolat, E. (2020). The role of the practitioner (leader) and the child in the forest school approach). In forest pedagogy in early childhood education (pp. 147-163). Nobel Publishing.

Yigit-Gencten, V., & Gultekin, M. a(2021). Nature-based reading and writing instructions in early childhood education: The Giving Tree example. Environmental Education Research, 28(1), 95-108. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2021.2015294

Zembat, R. (2007). Qualification in pre-school education. A. Oktay, O. In P. Unutkan (Ed.), Current Issues in Preschool Education (p.25-42). Morpa.

Downloads

Published

2023-10-30

How to Cite

AYDEMİR, F., & YİĞİT GENÇTEN, V. (2023). The Connection Between Forest School and Preschool Programs: A Comparison Study. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, (36), 243–260. https://doi.org/10.14689/enad.36.1711