Abstract: This research was conducted at the Foreign Languages Department of Eskisehir Osmangazi University to explore English language teachers’ cognition and actions in handling learners’ speaking problems considering the background factors of schooling, professional coursework, context, and classroom practice. In line with this aim, a multiple case study was carried out. Data collection was implemented through open-ended questionnaires, observations, reflection reports, and interviews. Once overall perceptions of 28 teachers were gathered, in-depth data obtained from 5 teachers in the same group provided further insight. According to the questionnaire's findings, most teachers perceived speaking as an important skill and made suggestions on improving this skill. In-depth data revealed that one of the teachers, contrary to her suggestions, applied a teacher-centred approach indicating contextual constraints as a reason. In contrast, another one preferred a learner-centred approach and did not complain about the contextual factors.
Keywords: Teaching speaking, teacher cognition, teachers’ perceptions, teachers’ actions, background factors